B - Child Health
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The
enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the
fundamental rights of every human being regardless of race, religion,
and political belief, economic and social disparities.
Preventive Child Health
Besides being one of the most successful and cost-effective public
health interventions, vaccines are also one of the most important
factors affecting childrens health and their quality of life.
The Expanded Program on Immunization covers the vaccination services for
the vulnerable age groups in order to protect and immunize as well as
to control and eradicate pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps,
tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, and H. Influenza type B
infections that can have serious consequences like illness, disability
or death. Immunization services are the primary services for preventive
health care. These services also provide an opportunity to deliver other
life-saving measures, such as family planning and nutrition, to mothers
As a Collaborating Center of WHO, ICC aims to expand this
cost-effective approach not only in Turkey but also in Eastern Europe,
the Balkans, and South Caucasus and in the Commonwealth of Independent
States by providing skill-based training on program management to
By this means, ICC in collaboration with UNICEF Tashkent Office and
WHO Tashkent Office and full support of Ministry of Health Care of
Uzbekistan carried out Workshop on Immunization Training for Mid-level Managers
in Tashkent-Uzbekistan on 25-29 March 2013. Thirty three managers from
different regions of all levels participated the workshop.
The main objective of the workshop is to contribute to increase the
quality of immunization services, to increase immunization coverage and
inform health professionals and managers on effective programme
After carrying out a workshop on Immunization Training for Mid-level Managers
in Tashkent-Uzbekistan on 25-29 March 2013, ICC carried out similar two
workshops in Kiev-Ukraine on 7-11 October and 14-18 October 2013. These
workshops were supported by World Health Organisation (WHO) Europe
Office and WHO Ukraine Office. Fifty five managers from different
regions of all levels participated to the workshops.
Another workshop on Immunization Training for Mid-level Managers
was carried out in Baku-Azerbajian on 10-14 November 2014. This
workshop was supported by World Health Organisation (WHO) Europe Office
and WHO Azerbajian Office. Twenty five managers from different regions
of all levels participated to the workshops.
European Immunization Week
In 2013, ICC (WHO Collaboration Centre) with the support of Bilkent
University Library displayed materials and fact sheets about
immunization at the entrance of the main library building to raise
awareness among university staff and students. During the week , the
library was visited by 20276 people.
Health professionals working at the primary health care level in Ankara
were also provided a conference on Immunization by the Ass. Prof. Sevtap
Güney, a member of National Immunization Committee. Total of 163 health
care providers attended the meeting.
In 2014, ICC (WHO Collaboration Centre) with the support of Bilkent
University Health Center, Bilkent Genetic Society and Social
Responsibility Projects prepared immunization brochures (Tetanus and
HPV) and posters to raise awareness among university staff and students.
Posters were displayed at the Bilkent University Health Center and
Tetanus and HPV brochures were distributed to university staff and
students. Moreover, Health professionals working at the primary health
care level in Mardin were also provided a conference on Immunization by
the Ass. Prof. Sevtap Güney, a member of National Immunization
Committee. Total of 282 health care providers attended the meeting.
These conferences will continue all the year round.
ICC Baku Branch Immunization Training in Azerbaijan
It has been established that timely vaccination protects children
from an early age and prevents disease outbreaks. In the developed
countries, investigators have concluded that the primary cause for
epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases was failure to provide
vaccines on schedule. Delayed immunization schedule is partly due to
ineffective provider practices which lead to missed opportunities for
vaccination. Conventional wisdom holds that missed opportunity for
vaccination is the single most important cause of low vaccination
Missed opportunities are caused by less than optimal provider
immunization practices, such as deferring immunizations for invalid
reasons. Missed opportunities may result in delayed vaccination, under
immunization and inadequate protection against preventable disease.
Missed opportunities may be attributable to deficiencies in the
providers knowledge of the immunization schedule and true vaccine
contraindications or overcautious interpretation of the
contraindications. Minor illness although not a true contraindication
often is associated with missed opportunities. Missed opportunities also
exist when inappropriate contraindications are used to deny vaccination
to children in need. General practitioners and pediatricians may have
doubts about the real contraindications to primary vaccinations.
It is well-known that accepting fewer contraindications to
vaccinations from paediatricians in office-based practice is associated
with higher practice immunization rates and vice versa.
Thus in a one day workshop was organized to address the issues
related to a routine immunization clinic encounter: patient intake and
screening, vaccine administration, vaccine management, documentation,
vaccine adverse events management and reporting, and resources for
pediatricians practicing in Baku, Azerbaijan area in coordination with
Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan and Affiliation Center of ICC in Baku.
32 pediatricians were participated to the workshop.
Dr.Nasip Gulayev (Chief Pediatrician, Advisor for the Minister of
Health, Head of Baku Pediatrics Hospital) addressed the importance of
providing vaccines on schedule and of lowering the missed opportunities
to protect children against vaccine preventable diseases and the role of
pediatricians for the success of immunization programmes.
Though this workshop addresses the knowledge gap related to the routine
immunization clinic encounter in the context of recommended standards of
practice for patient intake and screening was addressed by
Ass.Prof.Sevtap Güney (Akdeniz University Medical Faculty, Department of
The communication strategies for parents who have questions or concerns
about vaccines was disscussed by Prof. Selda Bülbül (Kırıkkale
University Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Kırıkkale-Turkey).
The common immunization practice errors related to vaccine
administration and vaccine storage and handling, and the importance of
staff orientation and development was discussed by Dr. Guljan Dönmez
(Provincial Health Directorate, Manisa-Turkey) and Dr. Arzu Köseli
(Senior expert, ICC, Ankara-Turkey).
In the context of raising quality of in-service
training of health workers, World Health Organization, requested a
Master Protocol on new strategies in training and development of
guideline with participation of international experts.
A training Master Protocol was developed drawing on available
evidence from the literature review and Expert Consultation Meeting held
in November, 19-20 2012 at the International Childrens Center in
It was the recommendation of the consultation that, the
International Childrens Center to carry out the preparation of
Training Master Protocol (TMP) and Manual for Trainers (MfT) in order
to reflect the new concept of cascade plus strategy. Prof Dr Zafer
Oztek, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Institute of Public
Health, and Prof Angela Kydd, University of West Scotland, provided
consultancy services to ICC to produce the document.
Training Master Protocol (TMP) and Manual for Trainers (MfT) were
prepared to train health care professionals more effectively for
introduction of new vaccines by using cascade plus strategy especially in developing countries.
CHILD HEALTH PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS
The WHO publication "Pocket book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources" on the quality of care in pediatric clinics was translated into Turkish. In 2009, the adaptation of the handbook was carried out on the initiative of ICC and in cooperation with experts from universities and the Ministry of Health. The adapted version is being widely used in pediatric out- and in-patient clinics and an updated edition is in preparation.
Training modules on Mid-Level
Management Training for
Immunization were reviewed and
published in English and Russian.